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Please note that Mommsen uses the AUC chronology (Ab Urbe Condita), i.e. from the founding of the City of Rome. You can use this reference table to have the B.C. dates


V. The Establishment of the Military Monarchy

From: The History of Rome, by Theodor Mommsen
Translated with the sanction of the author by William Purdie Dickson

The History of Old Rome

Chapter XI - The Old Republic and the New Monarchy


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Page 73

Impracticableness of Ideal

However much of the idea of his party and of his youth-- to found a Periclean government in Rome not by virtue of the sword, but by virtue of the confidence of the nation--Caesar had been obliged to abandon in the struggle with realities, he retained even now the fundamental idea--of not founding a military monarchy-- with an energy to which history scarcely supplies a parallel. Certainly this too was an impracticable ideal--it was the sole illusion, in regard to which the earnest longing of that vigorous mind was more powerful than its clear judgment.

A government, such as Caesar had in view, was not merely of necessity in its nature highly personal, and so liable to perish with the death of its author just as the kindred creations of Pericles and Cromwell with the death of their founders; but, amidst the deeply disorganized state of the nation, it was not at all credible that the eighth king of Rome would succeed even for his lifetime in ruling, as his seven predecessors had ruled, his fellow-burgesses merely by virtue of law and justice, and as little probable that he would succeed in incorporating the standing army--after it had during the last civil war learned its power and unlearned its reverence--once more as a subservient element in civil society.

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