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Please note that Mommsen uses the AUC chronology (Ab Urbe Condita), i.e. from the founding of the City of Rome. You can use this reference table to have the B.C. dates


V. The Establishment of the Military Monarchy

From: The History of Rome, by Theodor Mommsen
Translated with the sanction of the author by William Purdie Dickson

The History of Old Rome

Chapter XI - The Old Republic and the New Monarchy


The Original Greek New Testament

» Contents of this Chapter

Character of Caesar ||| Caesar as a Statesman ||| Setting Aside of the Old Parties ||| Discontent of the Democrats ||| Caelius and Milo ||| Dolabella ||| Measures against Pompeians and Republicans ||| Amnesty ||| Bearing of Caesar towards the Parties ||| Caesar's Work ||| Dictatorship ||| Other Magistracies and Attributions ||| Re-establishment of the Regal Office ||| The New Court - The New Patrician Nobility ||| Legislation - Edicts ||| The Senate as the State-Council of the Monarch ||| Personal Government by Caesar ||| In Matters of Finance ||| In the Governorships ||| In the Administration of the Capital ||| The State-Hierarchy ||| Regal Jurisdiction ||| Retention of the Previous Administration of Justice ||| Appeal to the Monarch ||| Decay of the Judicial System ||| Decay of the Roman Military System ||| Its Reorganization by Caesar ||| Foreign Mercenaries - Adjutants of the Legion ||| The New Commandership-in-Chief ||| Caesar's Military Plans - Defence of the Frontier ||| Attempts of Caesar to Avert Military Despotism ||| Absence of Corps of Guards ||| Impracticableness of Ideal ||| Financial Administration ||| Financial Reforms of Caesar - Leasing of the Direct Taxes Abolished ||| Reform of the Distribution of Corn ||| The Budget of Income ||| The Budget of Expenditure ||| Social Condition of the Nation - The Capital ||| The Populace There ||| Relations of the Oligarchy to the Populace ||| Anarchy of the Capital ||| Caesar's Treatment of Matters in the Capital ||| Diminution of the Proletariate ||| The Club System Restricted ||| Street Police ||| Buildings of the Capital ||| Italy - Italian Agriculture ||| Money-Dealing - Social Disproportion ||| The Poor ||| Extravagance ||| Table Luxury ||| Debt ||| Immortality ||| Friendship ||| Women ||| Depopulation of Italy ||| Italy under the Oligarchy ||| Reforms of Caesar ||| Measures against Absentees from Italy - Measures for the Elevation of the Family ||| Laws Respecting Luxury ||| The Debt Crisis ||| New Ordinance as to Bankruptcy ||| Usury Laws ||| Elevation of Agriculture ||| Distribution of Land ||| Elevation of the Municipal System ||| Provinces ||| Provincial Administration of the Oligarchy ||| In the Client-States ||| The Roman Capitalists in the Provinces ||| Robberies and Damage by War ||| The Conditions of the Provinces Generally ||| Caesar and the Provinces - The Caesarian Magistrates ||| Regulation of Burdens ||| Influence on the Capitalist System ||| The Beginning of the Graeco-Italic State ||| The Ruling Nations - The Jews ||| Hellenism ||| Latinizing - Cisalpine Gaul ||| The Province of Narbo ||| Northern Gaul ||| Spain ||| Carthage ||| Corinth - The East ||| Extension of the Italian Municipal Constitution to the Provinces ||| Italy and the Provinces Reduced to One Level ||| Organization of the New Empire - Census of the Empire ||| Religion of the Empire ||| Law of the Empire ||| The New Urban Law or the Edict ||| Caesar's Project of Codification ||| Gold Coin as Imperial Currency ||| Reform of the Calendar ||| Caesar and His Works

Character of Caesar

The new monarch of Rome, the first ruler over the whole domain of Romano-Greek civilization, Gaius Julius Caesar, was in his fifty-sixth year (born 12 July 652?) when the battle at Thapsus, the last link in a long chain of momentous victories, placed the decision as to the future of the world in his hands. Few men have had their elasticity so thoroughly put to the proof as Caesar-- the sole creative genius produced by Rome, and the last produced by the ancient world, which accordingly moved on in the path that he marked out for it until its sun went down. Sprung from one of the oldest noble families of Latium--which traced back its lineage to the heroes of the Iliad and the kings of Rome, and in fact to the Venus-Aphrodite common to both nations--he spent the years of his boyhood and early manhood as the genteel youth of that epoch were wont to spend them.

He had tasted the sweetness as well as the bitterness of the cup of fashionable life, had recited and declaimed, had practised literature and made verses in his idle hours, had prosecuted love-intrigues of every sort, and got himself initiated into all the mysteries of shaving, curls, and ruffles pertaining to the toilette-wisdom of the day, as well as into the still more mysterious art of always borrowing and never paying. But the flexible steel of that nature was proof against even these dissipated and flighty courses; Caesar retained both his bodily vigour and his elasticity of mind and of heart unimpaired.

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