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Please note that Mommsen uses the AUC chronology (Ab Urbe Condita), i.e. from the founding of the City of Rome. You can use this reference table to have the B.C. dates


III. From the Union of Italy to the Subjugation of Carthage and the Greek States

From: The History of Rome, by Theodor Mommsen
Translated with the sanction of the author by William Purdie Dickson

The History of Old Rome

Chapter VI - The War under Hannibal from Cannae to Zama


The Original Greek New Testament

» Contents of this Chapter

The Crisis ||| Marcellus ||| Hannibal Proceeds to Campania ||| Renewal of the War in Campania - The War in Apulia ||| Hannibal Reduced to the Defensive - His Prospects as to Reinforcements ||| The Sending of Reinforcements Temporarily Frustrated ||| War in Sicily - Siege of Syracuse ||| Carthaginian Expedition to Sicily - The Carthaginian Troops Destroyed ||| Guerilla War in Sicily - Agrigentum Occupied by the Romans - Sicily Tranquillized ||| Philip of Macedonia and His Delay ||| Rome Heads a Greek Coalition against Macedonia ||| Resultless Warfare - Peace between Philip and the Greeks - Peace between Philip and Rome ||| Spanish War ||| Successes of the Scipios - Syphax against Carthage ||| The Scipios Defeated and Killed - Spain South of the Ebro Lost to the Romans - Nero Sent to Spain ||| Publius Scipio ||| Scipio Goes to Spain - Capture of New Carthage ||| Scipio Goes to Andalusia - Hasdrubal Crosses the Pyrenees ||| Spain Conquered - Mago Goes to Italy - Gades Becomes Roman ||| Italian War - Position of the Armies ||| Conflicts in the South of Italy ||| Arpi Acquired by the Romans ||| Tarentum Taken by Hannibal ||| Conflicts around Capua ||| Hannibal Marches toward Rome ||| Capua Capitulates ||| Superiority of the Romans - Tarentum Capitulates ||| Hannibal Driven Back - Death of Marcellus ||| Pressure of the War ||| The Allies ||| Hasdrubal's Approach ||| New Armaments - Hasdrubal and Hannibal on the March ||| Battle of Sena - Death of Hasdrubal ||| Hannibal Retires to the Bruttian Territory ||| Stagnation of the War in Italy ||| Mago in Italy ||| The African Expedition of Scipio ||| Preparations in Africa ||| Scipio Driven Back to the Coast - Surprise of the Carthaginian Camp ||| Negotiations for Peace - Machinations of the Carthaginian Patriots ||| Hannibal Recalled to Africa ||| Recommencement of Hostilities ||| Battle of Zama ||| Peace ||| Results of the War ||| Out of Italy ||| In Italy

The Crisis

The aim of Hannibal in his expedition to Italy had been to break up the Italian confederacy: after three campaigns that aim had been attained, so far as it was at all attainable. It was clear that the Greek and Latin or Latinized communities of Italy, since they had not been shaken in their allegiance by the day of Cannae, would not yield to terror, but only to force; and the desperate courage with which even in Southern Italy isolated little country towns, such as the Bruttian Petelia, maintained their forlorn defence against the Phoenicians, showed very plainly what awaited them among the Marsians and Latins.

If Hannibal had expected to accomplish more in this way and to be able to lead even the Latins against Rome, these hopes had proved vain. But it appears as if even in other respects the Italian coalition had by no means produced the results which Hannibal hoped for. Capua had at once stipulated that Hannibal should not have the right to call Campanian citizens compulsorily to arms; the citizens had not forgotten how Pyrrhus had acted in Tarentum, and they foolishly imagined that they should be able to withdraw at once from the Roman and from the Phoenician rule. Samnium and Luceria were no longer what they had been, when king Pyrrhus had thought of marching into Rome at the head of the Sabellian youth.

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