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Please note that Mommsen uses the AUC chronology (Ab Urbe Condita), i.e. from the founding of the City of Rome. You can use this reference table to have the B.C. dates


V. The Establishment of the Military Monarchy

From: The History of Rome, by Theodor Mommsen
Translated with the sanction of the author by William Purdie Dickson

The History of Old Rome

Chapter X - Brundisium, Ilerda, Pharsalus, and Thapsus


The Original Greek New Testament

» Contents of this Chapter

The Resources on Either Side - Caesar's Absolute Power within His Party ||| Labienus ||| Caesar's Army ||| Field of Caesar's Power - Upper Italy ||| Italy ||| Provinces ||| The Coalition ||| Field of Power of the Coalition - Juba of Numidia ||| Italy against Caesar - The Pompeian Army ||| Caesar Takes the Offensive ||| Caesar's Advance ||| Rome Evacuated ||| Conflicts in Picenum ||| Corfinium Besieged - And Captured ||| Pompeius Goes to Brundisium - Embarkation for Greece ||| Military and Financial Results of the Seizure of Italy ||| Its Political Results - Fear of Anarchy ||| Dispelled by Caesar ||| Threats of the Emigrants - The Mass of Quiet People Gained for Caesar ||| Indignation of the Anarchist Party against Caesar - The Republican Party in Italy ||| Passive Resistance of the Senate to Caesar ||| Provisional Arrangement of the Affairs of the Capital - The Provinces - Pompeians in Spain ||| Massilia against Caesar - Caesar Occupies the Pyrenees - Position at Ilerda ||| Caesar Cut Off ||| Caesar Re-establishes the Communications ||| Retreat of the Pompeians from Ilerda ||| Caesar Follows ||| The Route to the Ebro Closed ||| Capitulation of the Pompeians - Further Spain Submits ||| Siege of Massilia ||| Massilia Capitulates ||| Expeditions of Caesar to the Corn-Provinces - Sardinia Occupied - Sicily Occupied ||| Landing of Curio in Africa ||| Curio Conquers at Utica ||| Curio Defeated by Juba on the Bagradas - Death of Curio ||| Pompeius' Plan of Campaign for 705 ||| Caesar's Fleet and Army in Illyricum Destroyed - Result of the Campaign as a Whole ||| Organizations in Macedonia - The Emigrants ||| The Lukewarm - The Ultras ||| The Preparations for War ||| The Legions of Pompeius ||| His Cavalry ||| Fleet ||| Junction of the Pompeians on the Coast of Epirus - Caesar against Pompeius ||| Caesar Lands in Epirus - First Successes ||| Caesar Cut Off from Italy ||| Antonius Proceed to Epirus ||| Junction of Caesar's Army ||| Caesar Invests the Camp of Pompeius ||| Caesar's Lines Broken - Caesar Once More Defeated ||| Consequences of Caesar's Defeats ||| War Prospects of Pompeius - Scipio and Calvinus ||| Caesar's Retreat from Dyrrachium to Thessaly ||| The Armies at Pharsalus ||| The Battle ||| Its Issue - Flight of Pompeius ||| The Political Effects of the Battle of Pharsalus - The East Submits ||| The Aristocracy after the Battle of Pharsalus ||| Cato ||| Pompeius - Military Effects of the Battle - The Leaders Scattered ||| Macedonia and Greece - Italy - The East - Egypt - Spain - Africa ||| Hostilities of Robbers and Pirates ||| Parthian Alliance ||| Caesar Pursues Pompeius to Egypt ||| Death of Pompeius ||| Arrival of Caesar ||| Caesar Regulates Egypt ||| Insurrection in Alexandria ||| Caesar in Alexandria ||| Relieving Army from Asia Minor ||| Battle at the Nile ||| Pacificatin of Alexandria ||| Course of Things during Caesar's Absence in Alexandria - Insubordination of Pharnaces ||| Calvinus Defeated at Nicopolis - Victory of Caesar at Ziela ||| Regulation of Asia Minor ||| War by Land and Sea in Illyria - Defeat of Gabinius - Naval Victory at Tauris ||| Reorganization of the Coalition in Africa ||| Movements in Spain ||| Military Revolt in Campania ||| Caesar Proceeds to Africa - Conflict at Ruspina ||| Caesar's Position at Ruspina ||| Battle at Thapsus ||| Cato in Utica - His Death ||| The Leaders of the Republicans Put to Death ||| Regulation of Africa ||| The Victory of Monarchy ||| The End of the Republic - The Resources on Either Side - Caesar's Absolute Power within His Party

The Resources on Either Side

Arms were thus to decide which of the two men who had hitherto jointly ruled Rome was now to be its first sole ruler. Let us see what were the comparative resources at the disposal of Caesar and Pompeius for the waging of the impending war.

Caesar's Absolute Power within His Party

Caesar's power rested primarily on the wholly unlimited authority which he enjoyed within his party. If the ideas of democracy and of monarchy met together in it, this was not the result of a coalition which had been accidentally entered into and might be accidentally dissolved; on the contrary it was involved in the very essence of a democracy without a representative constitution, that democracy and monarchy should find in Caesar at once their highest and ultimate expression.

In political as in military matters throughout the first and the final decision lay with Caesar. However high the honour in which he held any serviceable instrument, it remained an instrument still; Caesar stood, in his own party without confederates, surrounded only by military-political adjutants, who as a rule had risen from the army and as soldiers were trained never to ask the reason and purpose of any thing, but unconditionally to obey. On this account especially, at the decisive moment when the civil war began, of all the officers and soldiers of Caesar one alone refused him obedience; and the circumstance that that one was precisely the foremost of them all, serves simply to confirm this view of the relation of Caesar to his adherents.

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