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Please note that Mommsen uses the AUC chronology (Ab Urbe Condita), i.e. from the founding of the City of Rome. You can use this reference table to have the B.C. dates


V. The Establishment of the Military Monarchy

From: The History of Rome, by Theodor Mommsen
Translated with the sanction of the author by William Purdie Dickson

The History of Old Rome

Chapter VIII - The Joint Rule of Pompeius and Caesar


The Original Greek New Testament

» Contents of this Chapter

Pompeius and Caesar in Juxtaposition ||| Pompeius and the Capital - Anarchy ||| The Anarchists ||| Clodius ||| Quarrel of Pompeius with Clodius ||| Pompeius in Relation to the Gallic Victories of Caesar ||| The Republican Opposition among the Public ||| Attempts of the Regents to Check It ||| Increasing Importance of the Senate ||| Helplessness of Pompeius ||| Attempts of Pompeius to Obtain a Command through the Senate - Administration of the Supplies of Corn ||| Egyptian Expedition ||| Attempt at an Aristocratic Restoration - Attack on Caesar's Laws ||| Conference of the Regents at Luca ||| Designs of Caesar in This Arrangement ||| The Aristocracy Submits ||| Settlement of the New Monarchical Rule ||| The Senate under the Monarchy - Cicero and the Majority ||| Cato and the Minority ||| Continued Oppositon at the Elections ||| And in the Courts ||| Literature of the Opposition ||| New Exceptional Measures Resolved on ||| Milo - Killing of Clodius ||| Anarchy in Rome ||| Dictatorship of Pompeius ||| Changes of in the Arrangement of Magistracies and the Jury-System ||| Humiliation of the Republicans

Pompeius and Caesar in Juxtaposition

Among the democratic chiefs, who from the time of the consulate of Caesar were recognized officially, so to speak, as the joint rulers of the commonwealth, as the governing "triumvirs," Pompeius according to public opinion occupied decidedly the first place. It was he who was called by the Optimates the "private dictator"; it was before him that Cicero prostrated himself in vain; against him were directed the sharpest sarcasms in the wall-placards of Bibulus, and the most envenomed arrows of the talk in the saloons of the opposition. This was only to be expected. According to the facts before the public Pompeius was indisputably the first general of his time; Caesar was a dexterous party-leader and party-orator, of undeniable talents, but as notoriously of unwarlike and indeed of effeminate temperament.

Such opinions had been long current; it could not be expected of the rabble of quality that it should trouble itself about the real state of things and abandon once established platitudes because of obscure feats of heroism on the Tagus. Caesar evidently played in the league the mere part of the adjutant who executed for his chief the work which Flavius, Afranius, and other less capable instruments had attempted and not performed. Even his governorship seemed not to alter this state of things.

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