Since an enclitic, on losing its accent,
forms a part of the preceding word, the writing ἄνθρωπος τις
would violate the rule that no word can be accented
on a syllable before the antepenult. A paroxytone receives no additional
accent in order that two successive syllables may not have the acute
(not φίλός ἐστιν).
When several enclitics occur in
succession, each receives an accent from the following, only the last
having no accent: εἴ πού τίς τινα ἴδοι ἐχθρόν
if ever any one saw an enemy anywhere.
Sometimes an enclitic unites with a
preceding word to form a compound (cp. Lat. -que, -ve),
which is accented as if the enclitic were still a separate word. Thus,
οὔτε (not οὖτε), ὥστε, εἴτε, καίτοι, οὗτινος, ᾧτινι, ὧντινων;
usually περ (ἕσπερ); and the inseparable -δε in ὅδε, τούσδε, οἴκαδε; and
-θε and -χι in εἴθε (poetic αἴθε), ναίχι. οὔτε, ᾧτινι,
etc., are not real exceptions to the rules of
a. οἷός τε
able is sometimes written οἷόστε. οὐκ οὖν
is usually written οὔκουν not therefore,
and not therefore? in distinction from
οὐκοῦν therefore. ἐγώ γε and ἐμοί γε
may become ἔγωγε, ἔμοιγε.
An enclitic retains its accent (is
When it is emphatic, as in contrasts:
ἢ σοὶ ἢ τῷ πατρί σου either to you or to
your father (ἐμοῦ, ἐμοί, ἐμέ are emphatic: εἰπὲ καὶ ἐμοί
tell me too), and at the beginning of a
sentence or clause: φημὶ γάρ I say in fact.
b. ἐστί is written ἔστι at the
beginning of a sentence; when it expresses existence or possibility;
when it follows οὐκ, μή, εἰ, ὡς, καί, ἀλλά (or ἀλλ'), τοῦτο (or τοῦτ');
and in ἔστιν οἵ some, ἔστιν ὅτε
sometimes. Thus, εἰ ἔστιν οὕτως
if it is so, τοῦτο δ' ἔστι
that which exists.
In the phrases ποτὲ μὲν . . . ποτὲ
δέ, τινὲς μὲν . . . τινὲς δέ.
After a word suffering elision:
πολλοὶ δ' εἰσίν (for δέ εἰσιν), ταῦτ' ἐστί.
When a dissyllabic enclitic follows a