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From Hutton Webster's, Early European History (1917); edited for this on-line publication, by ELLOPOS
VIII. THE GREAT AGE OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC, 264-31 B.C.
» Contents of this ChapterPage 37
BATTLE OF ACTIUM, 31 B.C.
Antony's disgraceful conduct aroused the Roman people. They willingly followed Octavian to a war against one who seemed a national enemy. A naval battle in the bay of Actium, on the coast of Epirus, decided the issue. The fight had hardly begun before Cleopatra and Antony sailed away, leaving their fleet to take care of itself. Octavian pursued the infatuated pair into Egypt. Antony committed suicide, and Cleopatra, rather than be led a captive in a Roman triumph, followed his example. With the death of Cleopatra the dynasty of the Ptolemies came to an end. Egypt henceforth formed a province of the Roman Empire.
THE TRIUMPH OF OCTAVIAN
Octavian, on his return to Rome, enjoyed the honors of a three days' triumph. As the grand parade moved along the Sacred Way through the Forum, and thence to the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline, men noted that the magistrates, instead of heading the procession as was the custom, followed in the conqueror's train. It was a significant change. Octavian, not the magistrates of Rome, now ruled the Roman world.
Cf. The Ancient Greece * The Ancient Rome
Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) * Western Medieval Europe * Renaissance in Italy