Octavian, however, entertained other designs. He had never
been sincere in his support of the Senate, and the distrustful policy of that
body soon converted him into an active foe. From fighting Antony, Octavian
turned to alliance with him. The two antagonists made up their differences, and
with Lepidus, one of Caesar's lieutenants, as a third ally, marched on Rome at
the head of their legions. The city fell again under military rule. The three
men then united in the Second Triumvirate with full authority to govern and
reorganize the state. The advent of this new tyranny was signalized by a
butchery almost as bloody as Sulla's. Cicero, who had incurred the hatred of
Antony by his fiery speeches against him, was the most illustrious victim. More
than two thousand persons, mainly men of high rank, were slain. The triumvirs
by this massacre firmly established their rule at Rome and in the West.
BATTLES OF PHILIPPI, 42 B.C.
In the East, where Brutus and Cassius had gathered a
formidable force, the triumvirs were not to win without a struggle. It took
place on the plain of Philippi in Macedonia. The two battles fought there ended
in the suicide of the republican leaders and the dispersal of their troops.
This was the last attempt to restore the republic by force of arms.