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Please note that Mommsen uses the AUC chronology (Ab Urbe Condita), i.e. from the founding of the City of Rome. You can use this reference table to have the B.C. dates


IV. The Revolution

From: The History of Rome, by Theodor Mommsen
Translated with the sanction of the author by William Purdie Dickson

The History of Old Rome

Chapter XI - The Commonwealth and its Economy


The Original Greek New Testament

» Contents of this Chapter

External and Internal Bankruptcy of the Roman State ||| The Prospect ||| Finances of the State - Italian Revenues ||| Provincial Revenues ||| Taxes ||| Customs ||| Costs of Collection - Requisitions ||| Local Burdens ||| Extortions ||| Aggregate Financial Result ||| The Finances and Public Buildings ||| The Finances in the Revolution ||| Private Economics - Agriculture ||| Trades ||| Money-Dealing and Commerce ||| Ostia - Puteoli ||| Capitalist Oligarchy

External and Internal Bankruptcy of the Roman State

We have traversed a period of ninety years--forty years of profound peace, fifty of an almost constant revolution. It is the most inglorious epoch known in Roman history. It is true that the Alps were crossed both in an easterly and westerly direction,(1) and the Roman arms reached in the Spanish peninsula as far as the Atlantic Ocean(2) and in the Macedono-Greek peninsula as far as the Danube;(3) but the laurels thus gained were as cheap as they were barren.

1. Cf. IV. V. Transalpine Relations of Rome, IV. V. The Romans Cross the Eastern Alps

2. Cf. IV. I. The Callaeci Conquered

3. Cf. IV. V. And Reach the Danube

The circle of the "extraneous peoples under the will, sway, dominion, or friendship of the Roman burgesses,"(4) was not materially extended; men were content to realize the gains of a better age and to bring the communities, annexed to Rome in laxer forms of dependence, more and more into full subjection.

4. -Exterae nationes in arbitratu dicione potestate amicitiave populi Romani- (lex repet. v. i), the official designation of the non-Italian subjects and clients as contrasted with the Italian "allies and kinsmen" (-socii nominisve Latini-).

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