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Please note that Mommsen uses the AUC chronology (Ab Urbe Condita), i.e. from the founding of the City of Rome. You can use this reference table to have the B.C. dates

THE HISTORY OF OLD ROME

IV. The Revolution

From: The History of Rome, by Theodor Mommsen
Translated with the sanction of the author by William Purdie Dickson


The History of Old Rome

Chapter I - The Subject Countries Down to the Times of the Gracchi

ELPENOR EDITIONS IN PRINT

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» Contents of this Chapter

The Subjects ||| Spain ||| Lusitanian War ||| Celtiberian War ||| Marcellus ||| Lucullus ||| Variathus ||| His Successors ||| His Death ||| Numantia ||| Mancinus ||| Scipio Aemilianus ||| The Callaeci Conquered - New Organization of Spain ||| The Protected States ||| Carthage and Numidia ||| The Destruction of Carthage Resolved on at Rome ||| War between Massinissa and Carthage ||| Declaration of War by Rome ||| Resistance of the Carthaginians ||| Situation of Carthage ||| The Siege ||| Scipio Aemilianus ||| Capture of the City ||| Destruction of Carthage ||| Province of Africa ||| Macedonia and the Pseudo-Phillip - Victory of Metellus ||| Province of Macedonia ||| Greece ||| Achaean War ||| Province of Achaia ||| Destruction of Corinth ||| Kingdom of Pergamus ||| Province of Asia - War against Aristonicus ||| Western Asia - Cappadocia ||| Pontus ||| Syria and Egypt ||| India, Bactria ||| Decline of the Kingdom of Asia ||| The Jews ||| The Parthian Empire ||| Reaction of the East against the West ||| Maritime Relations - Piracy ||| Crete ||| Cilicia ||| General Result


"-Aber sie treiben's toll;
Ich furcht', es breche."
Nicht jeden Wochenschluss
Macht Gott die Zeche-.


Goethe.



The Subjects

With the abolition of the Macedonian monarchy the supremacy of Rome not only became an established fact from the Pillars of Hercules to the mouths of the Nile and the Orontes, but, as if it were the final decree of fate, it weighed on the nations with all the pressure of an inevitable necessity, and seemed to leave them merely the choice of perishing in hopeless resistance or in hopeless endurance.

If history were not entitled to insist that the earnest reader should accompany her through good and evil days, through landscapes of winter as well as of spring, the historian might be tempted to shun the cheerless task of tracing the manifold and yet monotonous turns of this struggle between superior power and utter weakness, both in the Spanish provinces already annexed to the Roman empire and in the African, Greek, and Asiatic territories which were still treated as clients of Rome.

But, however unimportant and subordinate the individual conflicts may appear, they have collectively a deep historical significance; and, in particular, the state of things in Italy at this period only becomes intelligible in the light of the reaction which the provinces exercised over the mother-country.

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Reference address : https://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/rome/4-01-gracchi.asp