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The Original Greek New Testament

Outline of Greek Grammar for the New Testament




§ 12. When two consonants come together the first is made homogeneous with the second, as follows:--

§ 13. Mutes of a different class must have the same degree of hardness according to the following classification:--


Smooth. Middle. Rough. Sibilant (with s.)
Kappa-mutes κ γ χ ξ
Pi-mutes π β φ ψ
Tau-mutes τ δ θ ζ

§ 14.
A smooth final mute is roughened before a vowel with the rough breathing. A rough mute is not doubled, nor can successive syllables begin with an aspirate. A tau-mute is sometimes dropped before σ, and always before κ; before a different tau-mute it is changed into σ.

§ 15. Before μ a kappa-mute is changed into γ, a pi-mute into μ, and a tau-mute into σ.

§ 16. ν before a kappa-mute becomes γ, before a pi-mute μ, before a liquid (λ, μ, ν, or ρ) it is changed into the same liquid, before σ or ζ it is dropped.

§ 17. ν is appended to certain endings in σι or ε before a pause or a vowel.

§ 18. There are several other less important rules, and some exceptions to most of the above.

§ 19. A long vowel or diphthong is used as an equivalent for two (usually short) vowels in immediate succession, or as a compensation for the omission of a consonant, sometimes for both.

§ 20. The changes in the union of two vowels are various, depending upon their comparative strength, position, and relation to the long vowels, or diphthongs respectively. They are readily learned by practice.

§ 21. Compensation is not always thus made for the omission of a consonant. Sometimes the omission occurs too far back in the derivation to be easily traced.

§ 22. A final vowel is sometimes elided before another vowel, and its place indicated by the apostrophe, (').

§ 23. There are several dialects, which chiefly affect the vowels, (like provincial pronunciation;) but in later Greek (to which the New Testament belongs) they were merged in "the common dialect," the Attic pre-dominating.


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