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Please note that Mommsen uses the AUC chronology (Ab Urbe Condita), i.e. from the founding of the City of Rome. You can use this reference table to have the B.C. dates


V. The Establishment of the Military Monarchy

From: The History of Rome, by Theodor Mommsen
Translated with the sanction of the author by William Purdie Dickson

The History of Old Rome

Chapter VII - The Subjugation of the West


The Original Greek New Testament

» Contents of this Chapter

The Romanizing of the West ||| Historical Significance of the Conquests of Caesar ||| Caesar in Spain ||| Gaul - The Roman Province - Wars and Revolts There ||| Bounds - Relations to Rome ||| Incipient Romanizing ||| Free Gaul ||| Population - Agriculture and the Rearing of Cattle ||| Urban Life ||| Intercourse ||| Commerce - Manufactures ||| Mining ||| Art and Science ||| Political Organization - Cantonal Constitution ||| Development of Knighthood - Breaking Up of the Old Cantonal Constitution ||| Abolition of the Monarchy ||| Efforts towards National Unity ||| Religious Union of the Nation - Druids ||| Want of Political Centralization - The Canton-Leagues ||| The Belgic League - The Maritime Cantons - The Leagues of Central Gaul ||| Character of Those Leagues ||| The Celtic Military System - Cavalry ||| Infantry ||| Stage of Development of the Celtic Civilization ||| External Relations - Celts and Iberians ||| Celts and Romans - Advance of Roman Trade and Commerce into Free Gaul ||| Celts and Germans ||| The Right Bank of the Rhine Lost to the Celts ||| German Tribes on the Left Bank of the Rhine ||| The Roman Policy with Reference to the German Invasion ||| Ariovistus on the Middle Rhine ||| Inaction of the Romans ||| Foundation of a German Empire in Gaul ||| The Germans on the Lower Rhine - The Germans on the Upper Rhine - Spread of the Helvetian Invasion to the Interior of Gaul ||| Caesar Proceeds to Gaul - Caesar's Army ||| Repulse of the Helvetii ||| The Helvetii Move towards Gaul ||| The Helvetian War ||| Battle at Bibracte ||| The Helvetii Sent back to Their Original Abode ||| Caesar and Ariovistus - Negotiations ||| Ariovistus Attacked - And Beaten ||| German Settlements on the Left Bank of the Rhine ||| The Rhine Boundary ||| Subjugation of Gaul - Belgic Expedition ||| Conflicts on the Aisne - Submission of the Western Cantons ||| The Conflict with the Nervii ||| Subjugation of the Belgae ||| Expeditions against the Maritime Cantons - Venetian War ||| Naval Battle between the Romans and the Veneti - Submission of the Maritime Cantons ||| Expeditins against the Morini and Menapii ||| Establishment of Communications with Italy by the Valais ||| And with Spain ||| Fresh Violations of the Rhine-Boundary by the Germans - The Usipetes and Tencteri ||| Caesar on the Right Bank of the Rhine ||| Expeditions to Britain ||| Cassivellaunus ||| The Conspiracy of the Patriots ||| Insurrection ||| Cicero Attacked ||| Caesar Proceeds to His Relief - The Insurrection Checked ||| And Suppressed ||| Retaliatory Expedition against the Eburones ||| Second Insurrection ||| The Carnutes - The Arverni ||| Vercingetorix - Spread of the Insurrection - Appearance of Caesar ||| The Gallic Plan of War ||| Beginning of the Struggle ||| Caesar before Arvaricum ||| Avaricum Conquered - Caesar Divides His Army ||| Labienus before Lutetia ||| Caesar before Gergovia - Fruitless Blockade ||| The Haedui Waver ||| Caesar Defeated before Gergovia ||| Renewed Insurrection - Rising of the Haedui - Rising of the Belgae ||| Caesar's Plan of War - Caesar Unites with Labienus ||| Position of the Insurgents at Alesia ||| Caesar in Front of Alesia - Siege of Alesia ||| Attempt at Relief - Conflicts before Alesia ||| Alesia Capitulates ||| ||| The Last Conflicts - With the Bituriges and Carnutes ||| With the Bellovaci ||| On the Loire - And in Uxellodunum ||| Gaul Subdued ||| Organization - Roman Taxation ||| Indulgences towards Existing Arrangements ||| Introduction of the Romanizing of the Country ||| The Catastrophe of the Celtic Nation - Traits Common to the Celts and Irish ||| The Beginnings of Romanic Development ||| The Countries on the Danube ||| Illyria - Macedonia ||| The New Dacian Kingdom

The Romanizing of the West

When the course of history turns from the miserable monotony of the political selfishness, which fought its battles in the senate-house and in the streets of the capital, to matters of greater importance than the question whether the first monarch of Rome should be called Gnaeus, Gaius, or Marcus, we may well be allowed--on the threshold of an event, the effects of which still at the present day influence the destinies of the world--to look round us for a moment, and to indicate the point of view under which the conquest of what is now France by the Romans, and their first contact with the inhabitants of Germany and of Great Britain, are to be apprehended in their bearing on the general history of the world.

By virtue of the law, that a people which has grown into a state absorbs its neighbours who are in political nonage, and a civilized people absorbs its neighbours who are in intellectual nonage-- by virtue of this law, which is as universally valid and as much a law of nature as the law of gravity--the Italian nation (the only one in antiquity which was able to combine a superior political development and a superior civilization, though it presented the latter only in an imperfect and external manner) was entitled to reduce to subjection the Greek states of the east which were ripe for destruction, and to dispossess the peoples of lower grades of culture in the west--Libyans, Iberians, Celts, Germans--by means of its settlers; just as England with equal right has in Asia reduced to subjection a civilization of rival standing but politically impotent, and in America and Australia has marked and ennobled, and still continues to mark and ennoble, extensive barbarian countries with the impress of its nationality.

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