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Please note that Mommsen uses the AUC chronology (Ab Urbe Condita), i.e. from the founding of the City of Rome. You can use this reference table to have the B.C. dates


IV. The Revolution

From: The History of Rome, by Theodor Mommsen
Translated with the sanction of the author by William Purdie Dickson

The History of Old Rome

Chapter VIII - The East and King Mithradates


The Original Greek New Testament

» Contents of this Chapter

State of the East ||| Cyrene Romans ||| The Parthian State - Armenia ||| Asia Minor ||| Mithradates Eupator ||| The Nationalities of Asia Minor ||| Pontus ||| Acquisitions of Territory by Mithradates - Colchis - Northern Shores of the Black Sea ||| Hellenism in That Quarter ||| Mithradates Master of the Bosphoran Kingdom ||| Lesser Armenia - Alliance with Tigranes ||| Paphlagonia and Cappadocia Acquired ||| Empire of Mithradates ||| The Romans and Mithradates - Intervention of the Senate ||| Sulla Sent to Cappadocia ||| First Contact between the Romans and the Parthians ||| New Aggressions of Mithradates ||| Aquillius Sent to Asia ||| The State of Things Intermediate between War and Peace ||| Aquillius Brings about War - Nicomedes ||| Preparations of Mithradates ||| Weak Counterpreparatons of the Romans ||| Mithradates Occupies Asia Minor - Anti-Roman Movements There ||| Orders Issued from Ephesus for a General Massacre ||| Organization of the Conquered Provinces ||| Pontic Invasion of Europe - Predatory Inroads of the Thracians - Thrace and Macedonia Occupied by the Pontic Armies - Pontic Fleet in the Aegean ||| The Pontic Proceedings in Greece ||| Position of the Romans ||| Sulla's Landing - Greece Occupied ||| Protracted Siege of Athens and the Piraeus - Athens Falls ||| Critical Position of Sulla - Want of a Fleet ||| Pontic Armies Enter Greece - Evacuation of the Piraeus ||| Battle of Chaerones ||| Slight Effect of the Victory - Sulla and Flaccus ||| Second Pontic Army Sent to Greece - Battle of Orchomenus ||| Reaction in Asia Minor against Mithradates ||| Lucullus and the Fleet on the Asiatic Coast - Flaccus Arrives in Asia - Fimbria - Fimbria's Victory at Miletopolis - Perilous Position of Mithradates ||| Negotiations for Peace ||| Preliminaries of Delium ||| New Difficulties - Sulla Proceeds to Asia ||| Peace at Dardanus - Sulla against Fimbria - Fimbria's Death ||| Regulation of Asiatic Affairs ||| Sulla Embarks for Italy

State of the East

The state of breathless excitement, in which the revolution kept the Roman government by perpetually renewing the alarm of fire and the cry to quench it, made them lose sight of provincial matters generally; and that most of all in the case of the Asiatic lands, whose remote and unwarlike nations did not thrust themselves so directly on the attention of the government as Africa, Spain, and its Transalpine neighbours.

After the annexation of the kingdom of Attalus, which took place contemporaneously with the outbreak of the revolution, for a whole generation there is hardly any evidence of Rome taking a serious part in Oriental affairs--with the exception of the establishment of the province of Cilicia in 652,(1) to which the Romans were driven by the boundless audacity of the Cilician pirates, and which was in reality nothing more than the institution of a permanent station for a small division of the Roman army and fleet in the eastern waters.

1. Cf. IV. VIII. Occupation of Cilicia

It was not till the downfall of Marius in 654 had in some measure consolidated the government of the restoration, that the Roman authorities began anew to bestow some attention on the events in the east

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