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Aristotle Bilingual Anthology : NATURE

from Aristotle's Metaphysics, * 1014b26-1015a19, translated by W. D. Ross, Greek Fonts


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Page 2

Hence as regards the things that are or come to be by nature, though that from which they naturally come to be or are is already present, we say they have not their nature yet, unless they have their form or shape. That which comprises both of these exists by nature, e.g. the animals and their parts; and not only is the first matter nature (and this in two senses, either the first, counting from the thing, or the first in general; e.g. in the case of works in bronze, bronze is first with reference to them, but in general perhaps water is first, if all things that can be melted are water), but also the form or essence, which is the end of the process of becoming.

διὸ καὶ ὅσα φύσει ἔστιν ἢ γίγνεται͵ ἤδη ὑπάρχοντος ἐξ οὗ πέφυκε γίγνεσθαι ἢ εἶναι͵ οὔπω φαμὲν τὴν φύσιν ἔχειν ἐὰν μὴ ἔχῃ τὸ εἶδος καὶ τὴν μορφήν. φύσει μὲν οὖν τὸ ἐξ ἀμφοτέρων τούτων ἐστίν͵ οἷον τὰ ζῷα καὶ τὰ μόρια αὐτῶν· φύσις δὲ ἥ τε πρώτη ὕλη (καὶ αὕτη διχῶς͵ ἢ ἡ πρὸς αὐτὸ πρώτη ἢ ἡ ὅλως πρώτη͵ οἷον τῶν χαλκῶν ἔργων πρὸς αὐτὰ μὲν πρῶτος ὁ χαλκός͵ ὅλως δ΄ ἴσως ὕδωρ͵ εἰ πάντα τὰ τηκτὰ ὕδωρ) καὶ τὸ εἶδος καὶ ἡ οὐσία· τοῦτο δ΄ ἐστὶ τὸ τέλος τῆς γενέσεως.

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Reference address : https://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greek-texts/ancient-Greece/aristotle_nature.asp?pg=2