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Please note that Mommsen uses the AUC chronology (Ab Urbe Condita), i.e. from the founding of the City of Rome. You can use this reference table to have the B.C. dates


IV. The Revolution

From: The History of Rome, by Theodor Mommsen
Translated with the sanction of the author by William Purdie Dickson

The History of Old Rome

Chapter XII - Nationality, Religion, and Education


The Original Greek New Testament

» Contents of this Chapter

Paramount Ascendency of Latinism and Hellenism ||| Latinism ||| Hellenism ||| Mixture of Peoples ||| National Decomposition ||| Religion ||| Greek Philosophy ||| Leading Schools - Newer Academy - Epicurus and Zeno ||| Carneades at Rome ||| Euhemerism Not an Adequate Support ||| Roman Stoa ||| Wide Influence of Stoicism - Panaetius ||| State-Religion ||| Priestly Colleges ||| Practical Use Made of Religion ||| Oriental Religions in Italy ||| Secret Worships ||| Education ||| Greek Instruction ||| Latin Instruction - Public Readings of Classical Works ||| Rhetorical Exercises ||| Course of Literature and Rhetoric

Paramount Ascendency of Latinism and Hellenism

In the great struggle of the nationalities within the wide circuit of the Roman empire, the secondary nations seem at this period on the wane or disappearing. The most important of them all, the Phoenician, received through the destruction of Carthage a mortal wound from which it slowly bled to death.

The districts of Italy which had hitherto preserved their old language and manners, Etruria and Samnium, were not only visited by the heaviest blows of the Sullan reaction, but were compelled also by the political levelling of Italy to adopt the Latin language and customs in public intercourse, so that the old native languages were reduced to popular dialects rapidly decaying.

There no longer appears throughout the bounds of the Roman state any nationality entitled even to compete with the Roman and the Greek.

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