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Please note that Mommsen uses the AUC chronology (Ab Urbe Condita), i.e. from the founding of the City of Rome. You can use this reference table to have the B.C. dates

THE HISTORY OF OLD ROME

III. From the Union of Italy to the Subjugation of Carthage and the Greek States

From: The History of Rome, by Theodor Mommsen
Translated with the sanction of the author by William Purdie Dickson


The History of Old Rome

Chapter II - The War between Rome and Carthage Concerning Sicily

ELPENOR EDITIONS IN PRINT

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» Contents of this Chapter

State of Sicily ||| Campanian Mercenaries ||| Mammertines ||| Hiero of Syracuse - War between the Syracusans and the Mammertines ||| The Mammertines Received into the Italian Confederacy ||| Variance between Rome and Carthage - Carthaginians in Messana - Messana Seized by the Romans - War between the Romans and the Carthaginians and the Syracusans ||| Peace with Hiero ||| Capture of Agrigentum ||| Beginning of the Maritime War - The Romans Build a Fleet ||| Naval Victory at Mylae ||| The War on the Coasts of Sicily and Sardinia ||| Attack on Africa - Naval Victory of Ecnomus ||| Landing of Regulus in Africa ||| Vain Negotiations for Peace - Preparations of Carthage ||| Defeat of Regulus ||| Evacuation of Africa ||| Recommencement of the War in Sicily ||| Suspension of the Maritime War - Roman Victory at Panormus ||| Siege of Lilybaeum ||| Defeat of the Roman Fleet before Drepana - Annililation of the Roman Transport Fleet ||| Perplexity of the Romans ||| Petty War in Sicily - Hamilcar Barcas ||| A Fleet Built by the Romans - Victory of Catulus at the Island Aegusa ||| Conclusion of Peace ||| Remarks on the Roman Conduct of the War


State of Sicily

For upwards of a century the feud between the Carthaginians and the rulers of Syracuse had devastated the fair island of Sicily. On both sides the contest was carried on with the weapons of political proselytism, for, while Carthage kept up communications with the aristocratic-republican opposition in Syracuse, the Syracusan dynasts maintained relations with the national party in the Greek cities that had become tributary to Carthage.

On both sides armies of mercenaries were employed to fight their battles--by Timoleon and Agathocles, as well as by the Phoenician generals. And as like means were employed on both sides, so the conflict had been waged on both with a disregard of honour and a perfidy unexampled in the history of the west. The Syracusans were the weaker party. In the peace of 440 Carthage had still limited her claims to the third of the island to the west of Heraclea Minoa and Himera, and had expressly recognized the hegemony of the Syracusans over all the cities to the eastward.

The expulsion of Pyrrhus from Sicily and Italy (479) left by far the larger half of the island, and especially the important Agrigentum, in the hands of Carthage; the Syracusans retained nothing but Tauromenium and the south-east of the island.

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