§ 57. The root of every primitive verb is a monosyllable,
consisting of a short vowel (α, ε, ι, ο, or υ) between two (usually simple)
consonants. Sometimes one or the other of the latter has been dropped far back
in the etymology. This root is most readily found in the 1st Fut., subject
only to euphonic changes. The 2d Aor. always has a monosyllabic root, with a
single vowel never long; but this may be somewhat different from the true
root. Primitive verbs only have a 2d Aor.
§ 58. The Pres. and Imperf. commonly strengthen the root,
either by adding a hard consonant, (sometimes more than one,) or (oftener) by
changing the root vowel into the corresponding long one or diphthong.
§ 59. The following tenses add certain characteristic letters
to the root:--
1st Fut. and 1st
Aor. act. and mid., (of verbs not liquid,) and 3d Fut.
1st Aor. pass.
1st Fut. pass.
2d Fut. pass.
2d (in liquid verbs
1st) Fut. act. and mid.
Perf. and Pluperf.
Act. of pure and liquid verbs
Perf. and pluperf.
act. ending in a pi- or kappa-mute