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Three Millennia of Greek Literature

Plato Bilingual Anthology

from Crito, * 49a-e, translated by B. Jowett, from Politeia, * 335b-d, translated by B. Jowett

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Page 3

From Politeia

When horses are injured, are they improved or deteriorated? The latter. Deteriorated, that is to say, in the good qualities of horses, not of dogs? Yes, of horses. And dogs are deteriorated in the good qualities of dogs, and not of horses? Of course. And will not men who are injured be deteriorated in that which is the proper virtue of man? Certainly. And that human virtue is justice? To be sure. Then men who are injured are of necessity made unjust? That is the result. But can the musician by his art make men unmusical? Certainly not. Or the horseman by his art make them bad horsemen? Impossible. And can the just by justice make men unjust, or speaking general can the good by virtue make them bad? Assuredly not. Any more than heat can produce cold? It cannot. Or drought moisture? Clearly not. Nor can the good harm any one? Impossible. And the just is the good? Certainly. Then to injure a friend or any one else is not the act of a just man, but of the opposite, who is the unjust? I think that what you say is quite true, Socrates.


Βλαπτόμενοι δ΄ ἵπποι βελτίους ἢ χείρους γίγνονται; Χείρους. Ἆρα εἰς τὴν τῶν κυνῶν ἀρετήν͵ ἢ εἰς τὴν τῶν ἵππων; Εἰς τὴν τῶν ἵππων. Ἆρ΄ οὖν καὶ κύνες βλαπτόμενοι χείρους γίγνονται εἰς τὴν τῶν κυνῶν ἀλλ΄ οὐκ εἰς τὴν τῶν ἵππων ἀρετήν; Ἀνάγκη. Ἀνθρώπους δέ͵ ὦ ἑταῖρε͵ μὴ οὕτω φῶμεν͵ βλαπτομένους εἰς τὴν ἀνθρωπείαν ἀρετὴν χείρους γίγνεσθαι; Πάνυ μὲν οὖν. Ἀλλ΄ ἡ δικαιοσύνη οὐκ ἀνθρωπεία ἀρετή; Καὶ τοῦτ΄ ἀνάγκη. Καὶ τοὺς βλαπτομένους ἄρα͵ ὦ φίλε͵ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀνάγκη ἀδικωτέρους γίγνεσθαι. Ἔοικεν. Ἆρ΄ οὖν τῇ μουσικῇ οἱ μουσικοὶ ἀμούσους δύνανται ποιεῖν; Ἀδύνατον. Ἀλλὰ τῇ ἱππικῇ οἱ ἱππικοὶ ἀφίππους; Οὐκ ἔστιν. Ἀλλὰ τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ δὴ οἱ δίκαιοι ἀδίκους; ἢ καὶ συλλήβδην ἀρετῇ οἱ ἀγαθοὶ κακούς; Ἀλλὰ ἀδύνατον. Οὐ γὰρ θερμότητος οἶμαι ἔργον ψύχειν ἀλλὰ τοῦ ἐναντίου. Ναί. Οὐδὲ ξηρότητος ὑγραίνειν ἀλλὰ τοῦ ἐναντίου. Πάνυ γε. Οὐδὲ δὴ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ βλάπτειν ἀλλὰ τοῦ ἐναντίου. Φαίνεται. Ὁ δέ γε δίκαιος ἀγαθός; Πάνυ γε. Οὐκ ἄρα τοῦ δικαίου βλάπτειν ἔργον͵ ὦ Πολέμαρχε͵ οὔτε φίλον οὔτ΄ ἄλλον οὐδένα͵ ἀλλὰ τοῦ ἐναντίου͵ τοῦ ἀδίκου. Παντάπασί μοι δοκεῖς ἀληθῆ λέγειν͵ ἔφη͵ ὦ Σώκρατες.

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