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Three Millennia of Greek Literature

Plato Bilingual Anthology

from Crito, * 49a-e, translated by B. Jowett, from Politeia, * 335b-d, translated by B. Jowett

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SOC. Then we must do no wrong? CRITO. Certainly not. SOC. Nor when injured injure in return, as the many imagine; for we must injure no one at all? CR. Clearly not. SOC. Again, Crito, may we do evil? CR. Surely not, Socrates. SOC. And what of doing evil in return for evil, which is the morality of the many-is that just or not? CR. Not just. SOC. For doing evil to another is the same as injuring him? CR. Very true. SOC. Then we ought not to retaliate or render evil for evil to anyone, whatever evil we may have suffered from him. But I would have you consider, Crito, whether you really mean what you are saying. For this opinion has never been held, and never will be held, by any considerable number of persons; and those who are agreed and those who are not agreed upon this point have no common ground, and can only despise one another, when they see how widely they differ. Tell me, then, whether you agree with and assent to my first principle, that neither injury nor retaliation nor warding off evil by evil is ever right. And shall that be the premise of our agreement? Or do you decline and dissent from this? For this has been of old and is still my opinion; but, if you are of another opinion, let me hear what you have to say. If, however, you remain of the same mind as formerly, I will proceed to the next step. CR. You may proceed, for I have not changed my mind.

ΣΩ. Οὐδαμῶς ἄρα δεῖ ἀδικεῖν. ΚΡ. Οὐ δῆτα. ΣΩ. Οὐδὲ ἀδικούμενον ἄρα ἀνταδικεῖν͵ ὡς οἱ πολλοὶ οἴονται͵ ἐπειδή γε οὐδαμῶς δεῖ ἀδικεῖν. 49.c ΚΡ. Οὐ φαίνεται. ΣΩ. Τί δὲ δή; κακουργεῖν δεῖ͵ ὦ Κρίτων͵ ἢ οὔ; ΚΡ. Οὐ δεῖ δήπου͵ ὦ Σώκρατες. ΣΩ. Τί δέ; ἀντικακουργεῖν κακῶς πάσχοντα͵ ὡς οἱ πολλοί φασιν͵ δίκαιον ἢ οὐ δίκαιον; ΚΡ. Οὐδαμῶς. ΣΩ. Τὸ γάρ που κακῶς ποιεῖν ἀνθρώπους τοῦ ἀδικεῖν οὐδὲν διαφέρει. ΚΡ. Ἀληθῆ λέγεις. ΣΩ. Οὔτε ἄρα ἀνταδικεῖν δεῖ οὔτε κακῶς ποιεῖν οὐδένα ἀνθρώπων͵ οὐδ΄ ἂν ὁτιοῦν πάσχῃ ὑπ΄ αὐτῶν. καὶ ὅρα͵ ὦ 49.d Κρίτων͵ ταῦτα καθομολογῶν͵ ὅπως μὴ παρὰ δόξαν ὁμολογῇς· οἶδα γὰρ ὅτι ὀλίγοις τισὶ ταῦτα καὶ δοκεῖ καὶ δόξει. οἷς οὖν οὕτω δέδοκται καὶ οἷς μή͵ τούτοις οὐκ ἔστι κοινὴ βουλή͵ ἀλλὰ ἀνάγκη τούτους ἀλλήλων καταφρονεῖν ὁρῶντας ἀλλή λων τὰ βουλεύματα. σκόπει δὴ οὖν καὶ σὺ εὖ μάλα πότε ρον κοινωνεῖς καὶ συνδοκεῖ σοι καὶ ἀρχώμεθα ἐντεῦθεν βουλευόμενοι͵ ὡς οὐδέποτε ὀρθῶς ἔχοντος οὔτε τοῦ ἀδικεῖν οὔτε τοῦ ἀνταδικεῖν οὔτε κακῶς πάσχοντα ἀμύνεσθαι ἀντι δρῶντα κακῶς͵ ἢ ἀφίστασαι καὶ οὐ κοινωνεῖς τῆς ἀρχῆς; 49.e ἐμοὶ μὲν γὰρ καὶ πάλαι οὕτω καὶ νῦν ἔτι δοκεῖ͵ σοὶ δὲ εἴ πῃ ἄλλῃ δέδοκται͵ λέγε καὶ δίδασκε. εἰ δ΄ ἐμμένεις τοῖς πρόσθε͵ τὸ μετὰ τοῦτο ἄκουε. ΚΡ. Ἀλλ΄ ἐμμένω τε καὶ συνδοκεῖ μοι· ἀλλὰ λέγε.

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