Orphanage was an important topic at the time of industrialism, because many
parents had to work very hard and there were bad working conditions in the
factories or workhouses. Subsequently, the parents were often physically worn
out, many mothers not rarely died during or shortly after the birth of their
children, and many fathers often died during their difficult, inhuman and mostly
dangerous work. And the children they left were orphans, many of them still too
young to care for themselves and facing a world they were not ready for, yet.
And this topic of orphanage is also raised in David Copperfield. As already can
be seen under “1.” David’s father is dead yet and his mother dies shortly after
the birth of her second child, presumably suffering from the tortures of her
cruel husband. So that makes David an orphan, though he is not the typical child
left by working-class people. His family has a higher social-standing, and even
if he also has no one to turn to, he does not suffer from hunger or bad
physical conditions. However David is not the only orphan to appear in the book.
There are for example Ham and Em’ly, whose fathers have been “Drowndead”
So presumably their fathers have been fishermen, more or less ordinary
working-class people, and this makes them the typical working-class orphans.
It is a clear case where children became orphans, because the work of their
parents was so dangerous that they finally died.