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Three Millennia of Greek Literature

Alexander Schmemann


From Schmemann's A History of the Orthodox Church













[1] Since pronominal references to the Church in the major languages other than English are usually feminine, a compromise was effected in the style of this work, with the Church as “she” in its earliest period, and “it” starting with its growing incarnation and institutionalization. Cf. “The Church and the Greco-Roman World,” pp. 25 and following. (Editor’s Note.)


1 Cf. V.V. Weidle, Baptism of Art (Westminster, England, 1950).

2 Cf. Afanassiev, Schmemann, Meyendorff, Koulomzine, The Primacy of Peter in Orthodox Thought (London, 1963).

3 The Didache, C.C. Richardson, ed. And trans., Early Christian Fathers, “Library of Christian Classics,” Vol. I (Philadelphia, 1953) pp.

4 St. Ignatius, Smrynaens, VIII, 1, 2, in Early Christian Fathers, page 115.

5 St. Ignatius, Romans, IV, 1; VII, 2, 3, Early Christian Fathers, p. 104.

6 H. Lietzmann, Histoire de L’église ancienne, Vol. 2 (Paris, 1937), p.

7 Irenaeus, Against Heresies, I, 10, 2, Early Christian Fathers, pp. 360-61.

8 Origin, Epistle to Gregory, 3.

9 Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, VI, 41, 11.

10 De Lapsis, 8, 9.

[2] From a liturgical hymn on the Feast of St. Constantine.

[3] G. Florovsky, The Ways of Russian Theology (in Russian, Paris, 1937), page 11.

[4] L. Bouyer, L’Incarnation et l’Église-Corps du Christ dans la théologie de St. Athanase (Paris, 1943), p. 24.

[5] Canon 17, Chalcedon.

[6] Canon 3, Second Ecumenical Council.

[7] G. Florovsky, The Byzantine Fathers of the Fifth to the Eighty Centuries (in Russian), Paris, 1933), p. 10.

[8] Ibid.

[9] L. Duchesne, Histoire Ancienne de l’Église (Paris, 1928), Vol. 3, p.343.

[10] See, for example, J.F. Bethune-Baker, Nestorius and His Teaching (Cambridge, England, 1908).

[11] Florovsky, op. cit., p. 15.

· Here the term “Eastern” refers, of course, to Syria and Antioch, as often during the disputes of these centuries, according to the regional divisions noted on p. 116. The broader perspectives of East and West—Byzantium and Rome, or Asia and Europe—are also intended where appropriate, it is hoped without confusion to the reader. Thus Eastern monasticism, mentioned just above, refers to the Orthodox Byzantine tradition as contrasted with Rome and the West.

[12] V. V. Bolotov, Lectures in the History of the Ancient Church (in Russian, St. Petersburg, 1907), Vol. 4.

[13] Florovsky, op. cit., p. 37.

[14] T. Barsov, The Patriarch of Constantinople and His Power in the Russian Church (in Russian, St. Petersburg, 1878), p. 104.

[15] Hymn for Christmas Day.

[16] J. Pargoire, L’Église Byzantine de 527 à 847 (Paris, 1923), p. 221.

[17] Kontakion of the Feast, cf. I.F. Hapgood, A Service Book of the Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church (3d ed.; Brooklyn, N.Y., 1956), page 172.

[18] Cf. Hapgood, op. cit., pp. 178, 230.

[19] V.V. Weidle, The Baptism of Art (Westminster, England, 1950).

[20] Ibid.

[21] Migne, Patrologia Graeca, LXXXIX, 829.

[22] B.J. Kidd, Documents Illustrating the History of the Church, Vol. 3 (London and New York, 1938), p. 73.

[23] Quoted in A.P. Dobroklonsky, St. Theodore (in Russian, Odessa, 1913), p.

[24] A. Harnack, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschicte, Vol. 2 (Freiburg, 1888), p.

[25] Cf. G. Vernadsky, The Byzantine Doctrine of the Power of the Emperor and Patriarch (in Russian, Prague, 1926), pp. 149 ff.

[26] Cf. D.F. Belyaev, Byzantina (in Russian, St. Petersburg, 1891-1908).

[27] Cf. A. Grabar, L’Empereur dans l’Art Byzantin (Paris, 1936).

[28] Ibid.

[29] Cf. F. Dvornik, The Photian Schism: History and Legend (Cambridge, England, 1948).

[30] F.I Uspensky, Studies in the History of Byzantine Education (in Russian, St. Petersburg, 1892).

[31] Cf. L. Duchesne, Autonomies Ecclésiatiques, Églises Séparées (paris, 1905), pp. 164-65.

[32] C. Neumann, La situation mondial de l’Empire Byzantin avant les croisades (Paris, 1905), p. 25.

[33] Dvornik, op. cit.

[34] A. P. Lopukhin, The History of the Christian Church in the Nineteenth Century (in Russian, St. Petersburg, 1901), Vol. 2, The Orthodox East, pp. 47-48.

[35] A. Lebedev, The History of the Graeco-Eastern Church under the Turks (in Russian, St. Petersburg, 1903), p. 29.

[36] V. Solovyov (1853-1900), Russian philosopher and an acute critic of Orthodox Byzantinism. Cf. His book, Russia and the Universal Church (London, 1948).

[37] Quoted in Cyprian Kern, Archimandrite Antonine Capoustine (in Russian, Belgrade, 1931).

[38] Ibid.

[39] Ibid.

[40] G. Florovsky,The Ways of Russian Theology (in Russian, Paris, 1937), p.

[41] Kern, op. cit.

[42] Cf. ibid.

[43] Cf. English translation in E. Kadlubovsky and G.E.M. Palmer, Writings from the Philokalia (London, 1951).

[44] K. Leontiev (1831-91), Russian writer and thinker. Cf. V.V. Zenkovsky, History of Russian Philosophy (New York, 1953), chap. 12.

[45] S.L. Frank (1887-1950), Russian philosopher. Cf. V.V. Zenkovsky, History of Russian Philosophy, G.L. Kline, trans. (New York, 1953), Vol. II, chap. 5.

[46] G. Fedotov, The Russian Religious Mind (Cambridge, Mass., 1946), p. 412.

[47] Ibid., p. 260.

[48] Ibid.

[49] E.E. Golubinsky, author of a History of the Russian Church (1880-81), famous for its violently critical approach to Kievan Christianity.

[50] G. Florovsky, The Ways of Russian Theology (in Russian, Paris, 1937), page 7.

[51] Ibid., pp. 2-3.

[52] Fedotov, op. cit., pp. 400-403.

[53] P. Znamensky, Manual of Russian Church History (in Russian, Kazan, 1888), pp. 99-100, 76.

[54] Florovsky, op. cit., p. 1.

[55] Znamensky, op. cit., pp. 99-100.

[56] A. Kartashoff, “The Destiny of Holy Russia,” Pravoslavnaya mysl, Vol. I (Paris, 1928), p. 143.

[57] Ibid., p. 149.

[58] G. Fedotov, “Russia and Freedom,” in his Novyi Grad (in Russian, New York, 1952), p. 145.

[59] The bodyguard of Ivan the Terrible, chief executors of his cruelties.

[60] Prince Kurbsky (1528-83), one of the most enlightened men in Muscovy, deserted to Lithuania. He was the author of famous epistles to Ivan the Terrible.

[61] Fedotov, “Russia and Freedom,” p. 151.

[62] Name given to the followers of Abbot Nilus of Sora, who opposed Abbot Joseph on the question of monastic properties.

[63] Florovsky, op. cit., p. 58.

[64] Ibid., p. 43.

[65] Ibid., p. 64.

[66] Ibid., p. 67.

[67] Official name given to the Church in imperial terminology.

[68] Florovsky, op. cit., p. 83.

[69] Ibid., p. 89.

[70] Ibid., p. 101.

[71] Prepotensky was a seminarian who became an atheist in Leskov’s Cathedral People; Rakitin, the seminarian in Dostoevski’s Brothers Karamzov.

[72] Metropolitan Philaret of Moscow (1782-1867) was one of the greatest Russian hierarchs and theologians; V.I. Nesmelow (1863-1918) was professor at Kazan Theological Academy and author of the remarkable Science of Man (1903).

[73] Cf. G. Fedotov, Treasury of Russian Spirituality (New York, 1948).

[74] V. Weidle, The Task of Russia (in Russian, New York, 1956), pp. 47-50.

Schmemann, A History of the Orthodox Church: Table of Contents

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