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MACCABEES IV - APPENDIX / ΜΑΚΑΒΑΙΩΝ Δ - ΠΑΡΑΡΤΗΜΑ

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1 And what wonder? if the lusts of the soul, after participation with what is beautiful, are frustrated, 2 on this ground, therefore, the temperate Joseph is praised in that by reasoning, he subdued, on reflection, the indulgence of sense. 3 For, although young, and ripe for sexual intercourse, he abrogated by reasoning the stimulus of his passions. 4 And it is not merely the stimulus of sensual indulgence, but that of every desire, that reasoning is able to master. 5 For instance, the law says, Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor anything that belongs to thy neighbour. 6 Now, then, since it is the law which has forbidden us to desire, I shall much the more easily persuade you, that reasoning is able to govern our lusts, just as it does the affections which are impediments to justice. 7 Since in what way is a solitary eater, and a glutton, and a drunkard reclaimed, unless it be clear that reasoning is lord of the passions? 8 A man, therefore, who regulates his course by the law, even if he be a lover of money, straightway puts force upon his own disposition; lending to the needy without interest, and cancelling the debt of the incoming sabbath. 9 And should a man be parsimonious, he is ruled by the law acting through reasoning; so that he does not glean his harvest crops, nor vintage: and in reference to other points we may perceive that it is reasoning that conquers his passions. 10 For the law conquers even affection toward parents, not surrendering virtue on their account. 11 And it prevails over marriage love, condemning it when transgressing law. 12 And it lords it over the love of parents toward their children, for they punish them for vice; and it domineers over the intimacy of friends, reproving them when wicked. 13 And think it not a strange assertion that reasoning can in behalf of the law conquer even enmity. 14 It alloweth not to cut down the cultivated herbage of an enemy, but preserveth it from the destroyers, and collecteth their fallen ruins. 15 And reason appears to be master of the more violent passions, as love of empire and empty boasting, and slander. 16 For the temperate understanding repels all these malignant passions, as it does wrath: for it masters even this. 17 Thus Moses, when angered against Dathan and Abiram, did nothing to them in wrath, but regulated his anger by reasoning. 18 For the temperate mind is able, as I said, to be superior to the passions, and to transfer some, and destroy others. 19 For why, else, does our most wise father Jacob blame Simeon and Levi for having irrationally slain the whole race of the Shechemites, saying, Cursed be their anger. 20 For if reasoning did not possess the power of subduing angry affections, he would not have spoken thus. 21 For at the time when God created man, He implanted within him his passions and moral nature. 22 And at that time He enthroned above all the holy leader mind, through the medium of the senses. 23 And He gave a law to this mind, by living according to which it will maintain a temperate, and just, and good, and manly reign. 24 How, then, a man may say, if reasoning be master of the passions, has it no control over forgetfulness and ignorance? Καὶ τί θαυμαστόν; εἰ αἱ τῆς ψυχῆς ἐπιθυμίαι πρὸς τὴν τοῦ κάλλους μετουσίαν ἀκυροῦνται; 2 ταύτῃ γοῦν ὁ σώφρων ᾿Ιωσὴφ ἐπαινεῖται, ὅτι τῷ λογισμῷ καὶ τῇ διανοίᾳ περιεκράτησε τῆς ἡδυπαθείας. 3 νέος γὰρ ὢν καὶ ἀκμάζων πρὸς συνουσιασμὸν ἠκύρωσε τῷ λογισμῷ τὸν τῶν παθῶν οἶστρον. 4 οὐ μόνον δὲ τὴν τῆς ἡδυπαθείας οἰστρηλασίαν ἐπικρατεῖν ὁ λογισμὸς φαίνεται, ἀλλὰ καὶ πάσης ἐπιθυμίας. 5 λέγει γοῦν ὁ νόμος· οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ πλησίον σου οὐδὲ ὅσα τῷ πλησίον σου ἐστίν. 6 καίτοι ὅτε μὴ ἐπιθυμεῖν ἡμᾶς εἴρηκεν ὁ νόμος, πολὺ πλέον πείσαιμ’ ἂν ὑμᾶς ὅτι τῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν κρατεῖν δύναται ὁ λογισμός. - ῞Ωσπερ καὶ τῶν κωλυτικῶν τῆς δικαιοσύνης παθῶν· 7 ἐπεὶ τίνα τρόπον μονοφάγος τις ὢν τὸ ἦθος καὶ γαστρίμαργος καὶ μέθυσος μεταπαιδεύεται, εἰ μὴ δῆλον ὅτι κύριός ἐστι τῶν παθῶν ὁ λογισμός; 8 αὐτίκα γοῦν τῷ νόμῳ πολιτευόμενος, κἂν φιλάργυρός τις ᾖ, βιάζεται τὸν ἑαυτοῦ τρόπον τοῖς δεομένοις δανείζων χωρὶς τόκων, καὶ τὸ δάνειον τῶν ἑβδομάδων ἐνστασῶν χρεοκοπούμενος. 9 κἂν φειδωλός τις ᾖ, ὑπὸ τοῦ νόμου κρατεῖται διὰ τὸν λογισμὸν μήτε ἐπικαρπολογούμενος τοὺς ἀμητοὺς μήτε ἐπιρρωγολογούμενος τοὺς ἀμπελῶνας. - Καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἑτέρων ἔστιν ἐπιγνῶναι τοῦτο, ὅτι τῶν παθῶν ἐστιν ὁ λογισμὸς κρατῶν. 10 ὁ γὰρ νόμος καὶ τῆς πρὸς γονεῖς εὐνοίας κρατεῖ μὴ καταπροδιδοὺς τὴν ἀρετὴν δι’ αὐτοὺς 11 καὶ τῆς πρὸς γαμετὴν φιλίας ἐπικρατεῖ διὰ παρανομίαν αὐτὴν ἀπελέγχων. 12 καὶ τῆς τέκνων φιλίας κυριεύει διὰ κακίαν αὐτὰ κολάζων καὶ τῆς φίλων συνηθείας δεσπόζει διὰ πονηρίαν αὐτοὺς ἐξελέγχων. 13 καὶ μὴ νομίσητε παράδοξον εἶναι, ὅπου γε καὶ ἔχθρας ὁ λογισμὸς ἐπικρατεῖν δύναται διὰ τὸν νόμον, 14 μήτε δενδροτομῶν τὰ ἥμερα τῶν πολεμίων φυτά, τὰ δὲ τῶν ἐχθρῶν τοῖς ἀπολέσασι διασώζων καὶ τὰ πεπτωκότα συνεγείρων. 15 Καὶ τῶν βιαιοτέρων δὲ παθῶν ἐπικρατεῖν ὁ λογισμὸς φαίνεται, φιλαρχίας καὶ κενοδοξίας καὶ ἀλαζονείας καὶ μεγαλαυχίας καὶ βασκανίας. 16 πάντα γὰρ ταῦτα τὰ κακοήθη πάθη ὁ σώφρων νοῦς εἰς ἀγαθὸν προτρέπων ἀπωθεῖται καὶ βιάζεται, ὥσπερ καὶ τὸν θυμόν· καὶ γὰρ τούτου δεσπόζει. 17 θυμούμενός γέ τοι Μωσῆς κατὰ Δαθὰν καὶ ᾿Αβειρὼν οὐ θυμῷ τι κατ’ αὐτῶν ἐποίησεν, ἀλλὰ λογισμῷ τὸν θυμὸν διῄτησεν. 18 δυνατὸς γὰρ ὁ σώφρων νοῦς, ὡς ἔφην, κατὰ τῶν παθῶν ἀριστεῦσαι καὶ τὰ μὲν αὐτῶν μεταθεῖναι, τὰ δὲ καὶ ἀκυρῶσαι. 19 ἐπεὶ διατί ὁ πάνσοφος ἡμῶν πατὴρ ᾿Ιακὼβ τοὺς περὶ Συμεὼν καὶ Λευΐν αἰτιᾶται, μὴ λογισμῷ τοὺς Σικιμίτας ἐθνηδὸν ἀποσφάξαντας λέγων· ἐπικατάρατος ὁ θυμὸς αὐτῶν; 20 εἰ μὴ γὰρ ἐδύνατο τοῦ θυμοῦ ὁ λογισμὸς κρατεῖν, οὐκ ἂν εἶπεν οὕτως. 21 ὁπηνίκα γὰρ ὁ Θεὸς τὸν ἄνθρωπον κατεσκεύασε, τὰ πάθη αὐτοῦ καὶ τὰ ἤθη περιεφύτευσεν. 22 ἡνίκα δὲ ἐπὶ πάντων τὸν ἱερὸν ἡγεμόνα νοῦν διὰ τῶν ἔνδον αἰσθητηρίων ἐνεθρόνισε, 23 καί τούτῳ νόμον ἔδωκε, καθ’ ὃν πολιτευόμενος βασιλεύσει βασιλείαν σώφρονά τε καὶ δικαίαν καὶ ἀγαθὴν καὶ ἀνδρείαν. - 24 Πῶς οὖν, εἴποι τις ἄν, εἰ τῶν παθῶν ὁ λογισμὸς κρατεῖ, λήθης καὶ ἀγνοίας οὐ κρατεῖ;

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