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ELPENOR - Home of the Greek Word

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The City, The Patriarchate, The Emperors

Coin of Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus Dragasis


Icon of the Christ and New Testament Reader

Les aspects matériels de la taxis byzantine, by Marie‑France Auzépy

The Triumphal Way of Constantinople and the Golden Gate & Plates - by C. Mango (pdf)

The Commercial Map of Constantinople & Plates - by M. Mundell Mango (pdf)

Economic history of Byzantium, edited by A. Laiou (Dumbarton Oaks, full version, pdf files)

Byzantium reconstructed and replica flags / Flag of the Late Empire and Emblem of Constantine Palaeologus (Wikipedia Byzantine History)

Constantinople Chronology

Greek Literature - Ancient, Medieval, Modern

Constantinople Home Page


  Blocked from Europe by the impregnable walls of Constantinople and the unyielding spirit of the Emperor and his people, the armies of the Prophet were obliged to travel the entire length of the Mediterranean to the Straits of Gibraltar before they could invade the continent - thus extending their lines of communication and supply almost to breaking point and rendering impossible any permanent conquests beyond the Pyrenees. Had they captured Constantinople in the seventh century rather than the fifteenth, all Europe - and America - might be Muslim today.

From: J. J. Norwich, Byzantium, the Early Centuries

First Page / Next Chapter : The Spirit

Constantinople Home Page

Greek Literature - Ancient, Medieval, Modern

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Three Millennia of Greek Literature

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